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TV & Audio Glossary

10-Bit Colour

A step up from 8-Bit Colour, this feature allows a television display to express a far wider range of colours and shades. Whereas 8-bit colour can give a spectrum of under 17 million colours, 10-bit colour extends this range to over one billion. An increased spectrum of colours also reduces colour banding on the screen, as more gradual transitions of colour are possible.


Featuring 1920 x 1080 resolution, a 1080i display uses two sets of horizontal lines that are ‘interlaced’ together. First, all the even scan lines are updated, followed by the odd ones – this happens so quickly that images appear to transition smoothly on the screen.


Also referred to as ‘progressive scan’. Like 1080i displays, 1080p features 1920 x 1080 resolution. However, rather than updating two sets of interlaced lines, 1080p displays will progressively draw line after line of the picture. Generally, the result is a sharper and better defined picture than you would see with 1080i.

360 degree sound

By generating full-sphere surround sound, this feature puts the audience at the centre of a 3D soundstage. Sounds can be generated more precisely around the listener, for a more immersive experience.


3D televisions use various display techniques to generate a 3D image, giving the impression of depth to the viewer.


Also known as Ultra HD or UHD, 4K TVs have a resolution of 3,840 x 2,160 pixels – four times the pixel count of a Full HD TV. The result is a clearer, better-defined picture, with more detail and texture.

4K HDR Processor X1

A processing chip from Sony, this is their mid-range model, with more features to improve picture quality. Features include: Object-based HDR Remaster, Super Bit Mapping 4K HDR and Dynamic Contrast Enhancer.

4K HDR Processor X1 Extreme

A processing chip from Sony, this is their most high-end model, boasting further improvements to image quality and processing speed. Features include: Object-based HDR Remaster, Super Bit Mapping 4K HDR, Dual Database Processing, Dynamic Contrast Enhancer and Precision Colour Mapping.

4K Processor X1

A processing chip from Sony, this is the most basic model in the X1 series. Features include Dynamic Contrast Enhancer and Precision Colour Mapping.

4K X-Reality PRO

This Sony feature improves image clarity, as individual parts of each scene are analysed and matched against an internal database of images stored on the TV. Texture, contrast, colour and edges are made sharper and more detailed. Also referred to as X-Reality PRO.

5.1 Channel Speakers

A set of five speakers and a subwoofer, used to achieve immersive, cinematic surround sound.

8-Bit Colour

The standard colour display for a television, 8-bit colour means your set can express roughly 17 million colours.

Acoustic Surface

A world first, Sony’s A1 series of OLED TVs use an ‘acoustic panel’ screen, transmitting sound from the screen itself to remove the need for additional/external speakers.

Active 3D

TVs with Active 3D use battery-operated shutter glasses to convey a 3D image. These shutters open and close rapidly, so your eye registers the screen as having depth and perspective.

Active HDR

This LG feature allows the TV to support all three current versions of HDR: HLG, HDR 10 and Dolby Vision. Also referred to as Multi HDR.


This feature allows multiple devices connected via HDMI to be controlled with a single remote. Devices could include set-top boxes, DVD/Blu-ray players and more.

Aspect Ratio

Refers to a display’s ratio of width to height, the most common aspect ratio being 16:9. This means that if a TV screen were 16 inches wide, it would be nine inches tall.


Describes tones of low frequency, pitch and range from 16-256 Hz.


An optical disc format, like DVD, used to store high-definition video content or games. Blu-rays offer superior detail and definition when used with an HD TV (or better), so you can enjoy your favourite films and series with the best possible image quality.

Bluetooth Connectivity

Bluetooth devices can be wirelessly paired and connected to one another. Many TVs with Bluetooth connectivity are compatible with wireless speakers, soundbars and even smartphones.

Clear Phase

A sound feature for Sony Bravia models, Clear Phase samples and corrects audio to cancel out peaks or dips. The result is a smooth, even reproduction of frequencies.


For more immersive listening, ClearAudio+ fine-tunes TV sound to give better clarity and separation across your content.

Curved Screen

Curved screen TVs have been a more recent trend in high-end TV sets. Benefits of a curved screen can include improved immersion, enhanced depth and a wider field of view.


Also known as digital radio or high-definition radio, DAB converts analog audio into a digital signal. DAB is said to improve the sound quality of broadcasts, offering CD-quality audio on FM stations.


The unit of measurement for sound levels. The inside of a library is considered to be around 40 dB of sound, with the upper 70s reaching a volume that people begin to find annoying.

Dolby Atmos

Designed for LG OLED TVs, this sound format generates a 3D soundscape, putting the listener at the centre for immersive surround sound.

Dolby Digital

An audio compression technology, Dolby Digital was first used to provide digital sound in cinemas. Today Dolby Digital has a number of applications, including TV, satellite radio, Blu-ray discs and games consoles.

Dolby Vision

Dolby’s 12-bit HDR format, capable of providing more colour depth and accuracy than the HDR 10 format.

Dual Database Processing

This feature compares images onscreen to its twin internal databases, improving image quality and clarity. 

Dual Database Processing can be found on Sony’s 4K HDR Processor X1 Extreme chip.


Digital Video Broadcasting is a set of standards that define digital broadcasting.

Dynamic Contrast Enhancer

This feature boosts contrast, and can be found in Sony’s 4K Processor X1, 4K HDR Processor X1 and 4K HDR Processor X1 Extreme.

Electronic Programme Guide (EPG)

Used with set-top boxes and newer TVs, an EPG allows you to see what programmes are on across channels and at different times throughout the day. This will generally include a short description of each show.


A subscription-free satellite TV service, Freesat offers over 200 TV and radio channels. Freeview HD and Freesat can be accessed on most Smart TVs.

Freeview HD

With Freeview HD you can access video on demand services such as BBC iPlayer, content services such as Netflix or Amazon Prime, enjoy 12 HD channels and up to 60 standard definition channels. Subscription-free TV service. Freeview HD and Freesat are often bundled into Smart TVs.

Full HD

Full HD TVs have a resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels. Full HD models also use progressive scan (1080p) as opposed to interlaced (1080i).

HD Ready

HD Ready TVs have a minimum of 720 horizontal lines and are capable of showing an HD image. However, you will still need to connect the model to an HD receiver to view programmes in high definition.

HDMI Connection

HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) cables are the standard for connecting high-definition video devices.


HDMI-CEC is a Smart TV feature used across brands, often under a brand-specific name, (such as Samsung’s ‘Anynet+’ function). It allows multiple devices connected via HDMI to be controlled with one remote.


HDR, or High Dynamic Range, gives better contrast, greater brightness and a wider colour palette than you would find on a conventional TV. Many modern, high-end TVs feature HDR, for a more lifelike picture.

HDR 10

A 10-bit HDR format. This format is the open standard for UHD Blu-rays, and is supported by all UHD TVs and players.

HDR Effect

Improves the quality of non-HDR content, bringing it as close to HDR quality as it can. This feature works across HD and SD content, upscaling old shows and films to look clearer. 

HDR formats include HDR 10, HDR 10+, Dolby Vision, Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) and SL-HDR1.


An LG Multi HDR feature, HDR SUPER means your TV can support HDR 10 and Dolby Vision formats.


This allows you to stream 4K content over the web or via USB, without the need for any other equipment.


Hybrid Log Gamma’ format. An HDR format developed jointly by the BBC and NHK.


A type of monitor, used as a panel for some lines of UHD TV. Its superior viewing angles mean the TV can be better watched outside of the usual ‘sweet spot’, useful for a packed living room.


LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) TVs use liquid crystals that react when electricity is passed through them.


Light emitting diode. TVs with an LED display use an array of LEDs as pixels, for brighter images and better contrast.

Local Dimming

Local dimming is a common feature on modern TVs used to improve contrast. Areas of the screen’s backlight are darkened, giving a wider contrast range. Features that make use of Local Dimming include Ultra Luminance (LG), X-tended Dynamic Range PRO (Sony) and Ultra Dimming (Hisense).

Magic Remote

The Magic Remote is a remote for use with select LG Smart TVs. It can be set up as a Universal Control to work with a range of compatible devices, and has a range of smart features to help you navigate and browse content.

Motion Rate

See Refresh Rate.

Motionflow XR

This feature inserts frames into fast-paced sequences, making movements and actions appear smoother and reducing blur.


A digital format for storing audio files. MP3 files use compression to reduce their size, so they take up less memory space on your hard drive.

Multi HDR

A TV capable of supporting more than one HDR format (formats include HLG, HDR 10 and Dolby Vision).

Multi-Room System

Speaker systems that can be wirelessly connected and synced, so you can listen to music anywhere in the house.

Nano Cell Technology

LG’s SUHD TVs make use of uniformly sized one nanometre particles, for more accurate colour and better viewing from wide angles. Nano cells in the TV’s display panel are capable of absorbing excess light waves, reducing incidents of colour bleed or fading.

Object-based HDR Remaster

By analysing images in each scene and correcting colour and contrast for each object individually, object-based HDR remaster can reproduce scenes with the detailed texture and appearance of real life. This technology also up-scales standard dynamic range HD content to near 4K HDR quality. This feature can be found on Sony’s 4K HDR Processor X1 and 4K HDR Processor X1 Extreme chip models.


Organic Light-Emitting Diode displays, or OLEDs, are considered by some to have the best quality display of any modern TV. An organic carbon film sits inside the display panel, removing the need for an external light source and giving an effectively infinite contrast range.

Passive 3D

Rather than using shuttered glasses like Active 3D, Passive 3D uses glasses with polarised lenses to achieve a sense of depth.

Perfect Black

This LG feature uses the superior contrast ratio of OLEDs and a 10-bit colour display to give bolder, more intense colour and contrast.

Picture On Glass

An LG screen design, ‘Picture on glass’ sees the display panel set in a transparent glass bezel.

Picture On Metal

An LG screen design, ‘Picture on metal’ sees the display panel bonded to an ultra-slim metal panel.


A minute area of illumination, pixels are the smallest unit of a digital image. Higher resolution TVs can achieve a greater level of detail as they use more pixels, allowing for a more precise image.

Precision Colour Mapping

This Sony feature enhances colour in real time, giving rich and natural results.

Processing Rates (Hz)

See Refresh Rate.


PVRs (Personal Video Recorder) allow you to record live television and save it to the device’s built-in hard drive.


A Hisense feature that allows you to pause or record live TV onto a USB storage device, without any loss of image quality or sound. Record on a show-by-show basis or use series link to ensure you never miss an episode.

Quantum Dot

Using tiny particles from two to 10 nanometres wide, Quantum Dot televisions or QLED TVs, generate brighter, more accurate colours.

Refresh Rate

The number of times per second that a TV can reconstruct an image, measured in Hertz (Hz). For example, a TV with a 60 Hz refresh rate can completely reconstruct an image 60 times a second.


A TV’s screen resolution is determined by the number of pixels being displayed in horizontal and vertical rows. For example, UHD TVs have a resolution of 3,840 x 2,160 – the screen is 3,840 pixels across and 2,160 from top to bottom.

S-Force Front Surround

A Sony feature, S-Force Front Surround emulates a 3D sound field with just a left and right speaker, for more immersive audio.


This 21-pin connector was a standard for audio-visual equipment, before being largely replaced by HDMI. Newer TVs will still often have a SCART port, allowing for the connection of VHS players, DVD players and old games consoles.

Screen Size (TV)

The size of your TV’s screen is measured in inches. Often a single model of TV will have a number of screen size options, so you can find the right size to suit your home. 

It is recommended you purchase a model with a larger screen for more advanced displays, such as UHD, QLED or OLED, as you will get the most benefit from their enhanced detail and image quality.


This LG feature allows you to control devices connected via HDMI with a single remote control. It is LG’s name for HDMI-CEC technology.

Slim Backlight Drive+

A double-edge LED panel from Sony, the Slim Backlight Drive+ boosts dimming precision for better brightness, contrast and realism. Enjoy an astounding image quality from an incredibly slim design.

Smart TV

A television with internet connection and access to a range of online features. Smart features can include video on demand and streaming services, the ability to connect other devices wirelessly and more.

Smart View

A Samsung feature for Smart TVs, Smart View allows you to stream from your phone to your TV. You can also use your smartphone as a TV remote, or add and play files from your PC.

Sound bar

Improve the audio quality of your favourite films and series. Sound bars house a number of speakers for a fuller audio experience – however, as the speakers are housed in a single slim bar, sound bars offer a tidier and more space-efficient alternative to a multi-speaker system.

Streaming Services (Audio)

Audio streaming services, such as Spotify or Pandora, allow you to listen to a huge catalogue of music online. Access streaming services on your Smart TV for a whole library of music and podcasts.

Streaming Services (TV)

Video streaming services, such as Netflix and Amazon Prime, allow you to watch a wide selection of films and series online. Access streaming services on your Smart TV for a whole library of films and series.


A loudspeaker dedicated to producing low-pitched bass frequencies.

Super Bit Mapping 4K HDR

14-bit signal helps to smooth out colours and shades on the screen and prevent banding. Super Bit Mapping 4K HDR can be found on Sony’s 4K HDR Processor X1 and 4K HDR Processor X1 Extreme chipsets.

Super UHD

LG’s line of Super UHD TVs make use of an extended colour range and Multi HDR to bring a new level of colour and clarity to your 4K resolution.

Surround Sound

By using multiple speakers and separate audio channels, surround sound gives the audience a more immersive audio experience. Sound is generated all around the audience, putting them at the centre of the action.


A term used by Samsung, referring to the ability to pause, play and rewind live TV.

Triluminos Display

A Sony feature, Triluminos Display uses a wide colour gamut to reproduce colours more accurately. Enjoy more accurate reds, greens and blues, with more realistic skin tones. See Wide Colour Gamut

True Colour Accuracy

This LG feature uses advanced colour mapping technology to effectively correct colour distortions, for a more natural, lifelike picture.


Also known as 4K or Ultra HD, UHD TVs have a resolution of 3,840 x 2,160 pixels – four times the pixel count of a Full HD TV. The result is a clearer, better-defined picture, with more detail and texture.

UHD Upscaling

When a signal lower than UHD 4K (e.g. HD, SD) is displayed on a UHD 4K screen, it must be upscaled so that the picture is shown across the whole screen. TVs with UHD Upscaling will analyse the signal picture, then add pixels to ‘fill in’ the screen, producing a properly scaled image. During the process of upscaling, sophisticated TVs can work to reduce visual noise and sharpen details, giving a picture quality closer to that of UHD 4K.

Ultra Dimming

The name given to Hisense’s Local Dimming technology, Ultra Dimming adjusts the screen’s backlight to give better contrast.

Ultra Luminance

The name given to LG’s Local Dimming technology, Ultra Luminance adjusts the screen’s backlight to give better contrast.

ULTRA Surround

A sound feature developed in a collaboration between LG and Harman/Kardon, using a multi-channel sound output to generate virtual audio channels, for an immersive, surround sound experience.

Universal Control

LG’s Magic Remote can be set up as a Universal Control, allowing you to control compatible devices with it such as sound bars, set top boxes or Blu-ray players.


A USB (Universal Serial Bus) cable allows communication between devices and a host controller, such as a PC, laptop or Smart TV.


USB HDD REC allows you to connect an external hard drive to your TV via USB and record shows and movies onto it.

VESA Mounting

VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association) have decided a standard for TV mounting holes, which has been adopted by all major television manufacturers. This ensures that all compliant models are compatible with VESA wall mounts and fit a number of set sizes.


A Video Graphics Array (VGA) connector is a 15-pin plug used to connect video cards, computer monitors, laptops, projectors, HD TVs and more.

Video On Demand (VOD)

Video on demand services (e.g. BBC iPlayer, All4) allow you to enjoy video or audio programmes at whatever time suits you.


The Linux-based operating system used to navigate LG’s Smart TVs. The current build is webOS 3.5.


Allows computers, smartphones, Smart TVs and more to connect to the internet wirelessly.

Wide Colour Gamut

By enabling a TV to represent a wider range of colours (see also 10 Bit Colour), this function gives a more realistic and natural picture, closer to real life.

Wireless Streaming

Allows you to play music all around your house without a need for wired connections. See Multi-Room System.

X-Reality PRO

This Sony feature improves image clarity, as individual parts of each scene are analysed and matched against an internal database of images stored on the TV. Texture, contrast, colour and edges are made sharper and more detailed. Also known as 4K X-Reality PRO.

X-tended Dynamic Range PRO

This Sony Local Dimming feature allows for a brightness range three times that of a conventional, LED-backlit TV. Precise backlighting controls can enhance your content to near-HDR quality, with improved contrast.


The YouView platform gives you access to an extensive range of video on demand content and catch-up services.